Jerusalem, by virtue of the number and diversity of people who have held
it sacred, may be considered the most holy city in the world.
Jerusalem is important to the Jewish people because it is Ir Ha-Kodesh
(the Holy City), the Biblical Zion, the City of David, the site of Solomon's
Temple, and the eternal capital of the Israelite nation.
Jerusalem is important to Christians because it is where the young Jesus
impressed the sages at the Jewish Temple, where he spent the last days of
his ministry, and where the Last Supper, the Crucifixion and the Resurrection
Jerusalem is important to Muslims because it is where the prophet Muhammad
ascended to heaven. After the holy sites of Mecca and Medina, Jerusalem is
the third most sacred place of Islam.
While highly charged with intense religious devotion and visited by countless
pilgrims and sages, Jerusalem has also been ravaged by thirty centuries of
warfare and strife.
Jerusalem is a holy place with a rich and ancient history.
History of Jerusalem
The earliest traces of human settlement in the Jerusalem area are from
the late Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age (3000 BCE). Excavations have shown
that a town existed on the south side of Mount Moriah, also called Temple
Mount. The name of this town was Urusalim, a word probably of Semitic origin
that apparently means 'Foundation of Shalem' or 'Foundation of God'.
About 1000 BCE, Urusalim was captured by David, the founder of the joint
kingdom of Israel and Judah, and became the Jewish kingdom's capital. In the
earlier wandering years of the Israelites, their most sacred object, the Ark
of the Covenant, was periodically moved about among several sanctuaries, but
following David's capture of Urusalim, the Ark was moved to that city around
955 BCE. The Ark was a portable shrine containing the two stone Tablets of
the Law that the prophet Moses had received upon Mt. Sinai. David renamed
his city Jerusalem, meaning 'City of Peace' in Hebrew, and chose Mt. Moriah
as the site of his future temple.
Mt. Moriah was already considered sacred for other reasons. It was also
believed to be the site where Abraham had built an altar on which he prepared
to sacrifice his son Isaac. At this same site, the patriarch Jacob gathered
stone from the altar upon which his father Isaac was to be sacrificed, and
using this stone as a pillow spent the night sleeping upon the rock. Upon
waking from a visionary dream, Jacob anointed the stone pillow with oil he
had received from heaven and the stone then sank deep into the earth, to become
the foundation stone of the great temple that would later be built by Solomon.
This hallowed site is known as Bethel, meaning “Gate or House of Heaven.”
The First Temple of the Jews was built during the reign of David's son,
Solomon. The Temple’s construction took seven years and was completed in 957
BCE. Soon after the Temple’s construction, Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon forced
the Jews into exile, removed their temple treasures in 604 BCE and 597 BCE,
and finally completely destroyed the temple in 586 BCE.
In 539 BCE, Cyrus of Persia conquered Babylon and allowed the Jews to
return to Jerusalem. Reconstruction began and the Second Temple was completed
by 515 BCE. This temple however, did not enshrine the Ark of the Covenant
as that sacred object had disappeared sometime before the plundering by Nebuchadrezzar.
The date of the Ark's disappearance and its subsequent whereabouts is
a mystery to archaeologists, historians and biblical scholars. Various possibilities
have been forward, including the hidden tunnels beneath Solomon’s Temple;
the Church of St. Mary of Zion in Axum, Ethiopia; and a castle of the Knights
Templar in France.
During the next five centuries, following the time of Cyrus of Persia,
Jerusalem was captured by Alexander the Great, controlled by Hellenistic,
Egyptian, and Seleucid empires as well as experiencing occasional periods
of Jewish freedom.
In 64 BCE, the Roman general Pompey captured Jerusalem, ushering in several
centuries of Roman rule. During this period Herod the Great (ruled 37 BCE – 4CE)
rebuilt and enlarged the Second Temple and created the famous Western Wall
(also called the Wailing Wall) as part of the supporting structure for the
enlarged Temple Mount.
In 6CE the Romans turned the governance of Jerusalem over to a series
of administrators known as procurators, the fifth of whom, Pontius Pilate,
ordered the execution of Jesus. During the next two centuries the Jews twice
revolted against their Roman oppressors, the city of Jerusalem suffered greatly
and the Second Temple was demolished in 70 CE.
In the year 135 CE, the Roman Emperor Hadrian began construction of a
new city, called Aelia Capitolina, upon the ruins of old Jerusalem. On the
site of the destroyed Jewish temple, Hadrian built a temple to the god Jove
(the Greek Jupiter), but this temple was itself demolished by the Byzantines
after the empire became Christian.
The conversion to Christianity of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine (306-337
CE) and the pilgrimage of his mother, Empress Helena, to Jerusalem in 326
CE inaugurated one of the city's most peaceful and prosperous epochs. According
to Christian legends, Empress Helena discovered the relics of the 'True Cross
of the Crucifixion' at the place of the Resurrection upon Mt. Calvary. Scholars
however, believe this so-called 'finding' of the relics to be a story fabricated
for political reasons by Constantine and his mother, and that the cross relics
were most probably manufactured, as were so many other relics during early
and medieval Christian times. Whatever the case, Helena's pilgrimage and Constantine's
royal support made possible the building of many Christian shrines in the
Foremost among the Christian shrines was the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
This church marked the site of the Resurrection and soon became the supremely
sacred place in all of Christendom. Finished in 335 CE, the great basilica
was apparently built upon the foundations of an earlier Roman shrine dedicated
to the goddess Aphrodite. It was during this splendid era of church construction
that the tradition of Christian pilgrimages to Jerusalem began.
The most visited pilgrimage sites were Bethlehem, were Jesus was born;
Golgatha, the site of his supposed crucifixion (and where legend says the
skull of Adam is buried); the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; and the Mount
of Olives, where Jesus (supposedly) ascended to heaven. The Christian glorification
of Jerusalem continued until 614 CE when the Persians invaded the city, killed
many of its inhabitants and destroyed numerous churches and monasteries.
Following a brief period of Persian rule, the Muslim Caliph Umar captured
Jerusalem in 638, six years after the death of Muhammad. Soon after his occupation
of the city, Umar cleansed the Temple Mount, built a small mosque and dedicated
the site to Muslim worship. The most imposing structure the Muslims found
in Jerusalem was the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Nearby the Arab conquerors
undertook to build a more spectacular edifice, the Dome of the Rock, not only
to proclaim the supremacy of Islam, but also to ensure that Christianity would
not tempt the new followers of Islam. The site chosen was the very same rock
where previously had stood the Jupiter temple of the Romans and before that,
the two temples of the Jews.
There was another reason for the Muslim veneration of this particular
site, one more important than the political expediency of usurping another
religion’s holy place. A certain passage in the Koran links the Prophet Muhammad
with Jerusalem and the Temple Mount. That passage, the seventeenth Sura, entitled
'The Night Journey', relates that Muhammad was carried by night 'from the
sacred temple to the temple that is most remote, whose precinct we have blessed,
that we might show him our signs...' Muslim belief identifies the two temples
mentioned in this verse as being in Mecca and Jerusalem (the Islamic name
for Jerusalem is actually al-Kuds, meaning the Holy City).
According to tradition, Muhammad's mystic night journey was in the company
of the Archangel Gabriel, and they rode on a winged steed called El Burak,
which according to Islamic Hadith tradition was a winged, horse-like creature
that was "smaller than a mule, but larger than a donkey." Stopping briefly
at Mt. Sinai and Bethlehem, they finally alighted at Temple Mount in Jerusalem,
and there encountered Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets, whom Muhammad
led in prayers. Gabriel then escorted Muhammad to the pinnacle of the rock,
which the Arabs call as-Sakhra, where a ladder of golden light materialized.
On this glittering shaft, Muhammad ascended through the seven heavens into
the presence of Allah, from whom he received instructions for himself and
his followers. Following his divine meeting, Muhammad was flown back to Mecca
by Gabriel and the winged horse, arriving there before dawn.
Dome of the Rock
At this hallowed site, known in Arabic as Haram al Sharif, the 9th Caliph,
Abd al-Malik, built the great Dome of the Rock between 687 and 691. Besides
its association with the ‘Night Journey’ of Muhammad, Jerusalem was also chosen
as the site of this first great work of Islamic architecture for political
Often incorrectly called the Mosque of Umar, the Dome of the Rock, known
in Arabic as Qubbat As-Sakhrah, is not a
mosque for public worship but rather a mashhad, a shrine for pilgrims. Adjacent
to the Dome is the Al-Aqsa Mosque wherein Muslims make their prayers.
Designed by Byzantine architects engaged by the Caliph, the Dome of the
Rock was the greatest monumental building in early Islamic history and remains
today one of the most sublime examples of artistic genius that humanity has
ever produced (the Great Mosque of Damascus, being a true mosque, is the earliest
surviving monumental mosque).
The dome is 20 meters high, 10 meters in diameter, and its supporting
structure, made of lead, was originally covered in pure gold (the real gold
was removed over the centuries and the dome is now made of anodized aluminum).
The sacred foundation stone is encircled by sixteen arches that formerly came
from different churches in Jerusalem, which were destroyed during the Persian
occupation of the city in 614 AD.
The Muslims in power before and during the Dome's construction period
had tolerated Christianity and Judaism, allowing pilgrims of both religions
to freely visit the Holy City. This era of peaceful coexistence ended in 969
however, when control of the city passed to the Fatimid caliphs of Egypt (a
radical and somewhat intolerant Shiite sect) who systematically destroyed
all synagogues and churches.
In 1071 the Seljuk Turks defeated the Byzantines, displaced the Egyptians
as masters of the Holy Land, and closed the long established pilgrimage routes.
The prohibition of Christian pilgrimage by these less tolerant Muslim rulers
angered Western Europe and became a contributing cause of the Crusades, a
series of invasions that culminated in the capture of Jerusalem in 1099.
From 1118 to 1127 a group of nine Frenchmen known as the original Knights
Templars excavated beneath the El-Aqsa mosque on the site of the old Temple
of Jerusalem. According to legend, they retrieved a vast wealth of gold bullion,
hidden treasures and the Ark of the Covenant.
The Christian Kingdom lasted almost 90 years, during which time the Dome
of the Rock was converted to a Christian shrine and named Templum Domini (meaning
Temple of the Lord), the Church of the Holy Sepulchre was rebuilt, and hospices
and monasteries were founded. The city was recaptured by the Muslims again
in 1187, was ruled by the Mamlukes from the 13th to 15th centuries (except
for the brief periods of Christian control in 1229-1239 and 1240-1244) and
the Turks until the 19th century. The Jews, who had been barred by the Christian
crusaders, returned from the 13th century onward, by the middle of the 19th
century nearly half the city's population was Jewish, and in 1980 Jerusalem
was officially made the capital of Israel.
The entire area of the Old City of Jerusalem has been charged since antiquity
with the powerful energy of holiness, devotion and spiritual love. Over more
than three millennia the control of the city's primary sacred places has shifted
frequently between the religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
The energy or presence of the sacred in Jerusalem is not, however, monopolized
by any of these faiths but rather gives rise to each of them. And this sacred
presence, beyond the imposed limitations of dogma, philosophy or politics,
has the wonderful quality of accumulating, and increasing in intensity, over
time. The holy rock of Mt. Moriah was first a Jebusite place of worship, then
the site of the Jewish Temples, next the sanctuary of the Roman god Jupiter,
later capped by the Muslim's Dome of the Rock, next taken over by the Christians,
and still later a Muslim shrine again. This same continuity of sacred use
also occurred at the site of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, which prior
to its Christian use was the location of a temple of Aphrodite.
Besides the sites discussed above, the following places are also much
visited by pilgrims in the Holy City. For the Jews, the most venerable locations
are Mt Zion, the traditional site of King David's tomb, and the Western Wall,
where stands the remaining part of Herod's 1st century BC expansion of the
Devout Christian pilgrims will visit the fourteen stations of the Via
Dolorosa, or 'Way of Sorrows'. Walking this route, the holiest Christian thoroughfare
in the world, the pilgrim symbolically relives the events of Jesus' passion.
Additionally, there are the shrine of the Ascension on the summit of the Mount
of Olives, the garden of Gethsemane, and Mt. Zion, the site of the Last Supper.
In the Dome of the Rock, beneath the ancient sacred stone, is a cave-like
crypt known as Bir el- Arweh, the Well of Souls. Here, according to ancient
folklore (not Islamic), the voices of the dead may sometimes be heard along
with the sounds of the rivers of paradise.
Contemporary travelers and pilgrims in Israel can purchase maps of Jerusalem
and these are extremely helpful for finding the holy places of Judaism, Christianity
Ark of the Covenant
British researcher Graham Hancock. In his richly detailed book, The Sign
and the Seal, Hancock presents evidence that the Ark was removed by Jewish
priests from Solomon's temple during the rule of the apostate King Manasseh
(687-642 BC). The Ark was then hidden for two hundred years in a Jewish temple
on the Egyptian sacred island of Elephantine in the Nile.
The Ark was later taken to Ethiopia, to the island of Tana Kirkos in Lake
Tana, where it remained for over 800 years until being brought to the city
of Axum, capital of the Axumite kingdom. When that kingdom was converted to
Christianity after 331 AD, the Ark of the Covenant was placed in a church
of St. Mary of Zion where it remains to this day.
Writing in his book Lost Secrets of the Sacred Ark, author Laurence Gardner
disagrees with Hancock’s assertions, and states that the Axumite Ark “Called
a manbara tabot, is actually a casket which contains a venerated altar slab
known as a tabot. The reality is that, although the Axum chest might be of
some particular cultural significance in the region, there are manbara tabotat
(plural of tabot) in churches across the breadth of Ethiopia. The tabotat
that they contain are rectangular altar slabs, made of wood or stone. Clearly,
the prized manbara tabot of Axum is of considerable sacred interest and, by
linguistic definition, it is indeed an ark – but it is not the biblical Ark
of the Covenant, nor anything remotely like it.”
Other sources researched by Laurence Gardner indicate that the Ark of
the Covenant had been hidden beneath Solomon’s Temple at the time of King
Josiah (597 BC) so as not to be seized by Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonians.
In his Mishneh Torah of 1180, the Spanish philosopher Moses Maimondes told
that Solomon had constructed a special hiding place for the Ark in tunnels
deep beneath the temple.
The prophet Jeremiah, son of Hilkiah who became the High Priest of Jerusalem,
was the captain of Hilkiah’s Temple Guard. Prior to Nebuchadnezzar’s invasion,
Hilkiah instructed Jeremiah to have his men secrete the Ark of the Covenant,
along with other sacred treasures, in the vaults beneath the Temple.
More than 1700 years later a group of nine Frenchmen known as the original
Knights Templars spent the years from 1118 to 1127 excavating beneath the
El-Aqsa mosque on the site of the old Temple of Jerusalem. They retrieved,
in addition to a vast wealth of gold bullion and hidden treasures, the true
Ark of the Covenant. While the existence and exact location of this Ark are
not currently known, the Templars soon became one of the most powerful religious
and political institutions in medieval Europe.